At first, France had monarchical rule. France is governed by what is known as the ‘fifth republic’. The transition from an absolute monarchy to a liberal republic is a story of revolution and war. France was first ruled by the Celts, who were followed by the Romans, the Moors and the Franks. its story was pretty much the same as its European neighbours.
The Middle Ages of France was marked by a series of long wars with England. France lost the Hundred Years War which left the country in debt. Much later, in the 18 century, the dissatisfied peasants revolted against the monarchy, leading to the French Revolution. The king and queen were executed and finally Napoleon Bonaparte took over the country.
Napoleon redesigned the nation. He conquered most of Europe before he was defeated at Waterloo by the British. During World war II, Germany occupied France, leading to much chaos and unrest. after the war, France sided with the Capitalist West to rebuild the nation.